Preparation for the UPPCS (Uttar Pradesh Provincial Civil Services) Mains GS (General Studies) papers can be a daunting task. But with the right approach and resources, it can be made manageable and enjoyable.

This guide aims to provide you with a comprehensive, step-by-step roadmap to prepare for the Mains GS papers.

Given that the content for these papers is similar to the Mains GS papers for UPSC CSE (Union Public Service Commission Civil Services Examination), this guide will also be useful for aspirants preparing for the latter.

Please keep in mind that from 2023, UP papers are now separately asked so even the character of GS papers will change.

Table of Contents

  1. Understanding the Exam Pattern and Syllabus
  2. Gathering Resources
  3. Reading and Note-Making
  4. Answer Writing Practice
  5. Revising Regularly
  6. Mock Tests and Self-Evaluation
  7. Maintaining Physical and Mental Health

1. Understanding the Exam Pattern and Syllabus

Exam Pattern

The Mains GS papers for UPPCS consist of four papers: GS Paper I, GS Paper II, GS Paper III, and GS Paper IV. Each paper is of 200 marks and has a duration of three hours.


Understanding the syllabus is the first and the most crucial step in your preparation. It will help you set a clear roadmap and prevent you from studying irrelevant topics.

General Studies – I

1- History of Indian Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2- Modern Indian history (from A.D.1757 to A.D. 1947): Significant events, personalities and issues, etc.

3- The Freedom Struggle- its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

4- Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country (till 1965A.D.).

5- History of the world will include events from 18th century to middle of the 20th century such as French revolution of 1789, industrial revolution, World Wars, redraw of national boundaries, Socialism, Nazism, Fascism etc-their forms and effect on the society.

6- Salient features of Indian Society and culture.

7- Role of Women in society and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

8- Meaning of liberalization, privatization and globalization and their effects on economy, polity and social structure.

9- Social empowernment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

10- Distribution of major natural resources of World- Water, Soils, Forests in reference to South and South-East Asia with special reference to India. Factors responsible for the location of industries (with special reference to India).

11- Salient features of Physical Geography- Earthquake, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, Cyclone, Ocean Currents, winds and glaciers.

12- Oceanic resources of India and their potential.

13- Human migration-refugee problem of the World with focus on India.

14- Frontiers and boundaries with reference to Indian sub-continent.

15- Population and Settlements- Types and Patterns, Urbanization, Smart Cities and Smart Villages.

General Studies – II

1- Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure, Role of Supreme Court in evolution of basic provisions of Constitution.

2- Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States: issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein .

3- Role of Finance Commission in Centre- State financial relations.

4- Separation of powers, dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions. Emergence and use of alternative dispute redressal mechanisms.

5- Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other major democratic countries.

6- Parliament and State legislatures- structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers and privileges and concerned issues.

7- Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary: Ministries and Departments of the Government, Pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity. Public Interest Litigation (PIL).

8- Salient features of the Reperesentation of People’s Act.

9- Appointment to various Constitutional posts, Powers, functions and their responsibilities.

10- Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies including NITI Aayog, their features and functioning.

11- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design, implementation and Information Communication Technology (ICT).

12- Development processes- the role of Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Self Help Groups (SHGs), various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

13- Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes, mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

14- Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education , Human Resources.

15- Issues relating to poverty and hunger, their implication on body politic.

16- Important aspects of governance. Transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations and potential, citizens, charters and institutional measures.

17- Role of Civil Services in a democracy in the context of emerging trends.

18- India and its relationship with neighbouring Countries.

19- Bilateral, Regional and Global groupings and agreements involving India and/ or affecting India’s interest.

20- Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests- Indian diaspora.

21- Important International Institutions, Agencies their structure, mandate and functioning.

22- Current affairs and events of Regional, National and International importance.

General Studies – III

1- Economic planning in India, objectives and achievements. Role of NITI Aayog, Pursuit of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s).

2- Issues of Poverty, Unemployment, Social justice and inclusive growth.

3- Components of Government Budgets and Financial System.

4- Major Crops, Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems, storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce, e-technology in the aid of farmers.

5- Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices, Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, Limitations, revamping, issues of buffer stocks and food security, Technology missions in agriculture.

6- Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.

7- Land reforms in India since independence.

8- Effects of liberalization and globalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

9- Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

10- Science and Technology-developments and applications in everyday life and in National Security, India’s Science and Technology policy.

11- Achievements of Indians in science & technology, indigenization of technology. Developments of New technologies, transfer of technology, dual and critical use technologies.

12- Awareness in the fields of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Space Technology, Computers, Energy resources, nano- technology, microbiology, biotechnology. Issues relating to intellectual property rights (IPR) and digital rights.

13- Environmental security and Ecosystems, Conservation of Wild life, Biodiversity, Environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

14- Disaster as a Non-traditional security and safety challenge, disaster mitigation and management.

15- Challenges of International Security: Issues of Nuclear proliferation, Causes and spread of extremism, Communication networks, role of media and social networking, Basics of cyber security, money laundering and human trafficking.

16- India’s internal security challenges: Terrorism, corruption, insurgency and organized crimes.

17- Role, kind and mandate of security forces, Higher defence organizations in India

18- Issues in Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry and Animal Husbandry.

General Studies – IV

1- Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human action, dimensions of ethics, ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values-lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators, role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

2- Attitude: Content, structure, function, its influence and relation with thought and behavior, moral and political attitudes, social influence and persuasion.

3- Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public services, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

4- Emotional Intelligence- concept and dimensions, its utility and application in administration and governance.

5- Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

6- Public/Civil Service values and ethics in Public Administration: status and problems, ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions, laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance, accountability and ethical governance, strengthening of moral values in governance, ethical issues in international relations and funding, corporate governance.

7- Probity in Governance: concept of public service, philosophical basis of governance and probity, information sharing and transparency in government. Right to Information, codes of ethics, codes of conduct, citizen’s charter, work culture, quality of service delivery, utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

8- Case studies on above issues.

2. Gathering Resources

The next step is to gather reliable study materials. Here’s a list of essential resources for each GS paper:

GS Paper I

GS Paper II

GS Paper III

GS Paper IV

Remember, these resources are just a starting point. You should supplement them with current affairs material and additional readings as per your comfort and requirement.

3. Reading and Note-Making

Developing a systematic reading strategy is crucial to cover the extensive syllabus effectively. Start with the NCERTs to build a strong foundational understanding of the subjects, then move on to the reference books. When reading, focus on understanding concepts rather than rote learning.


Note-making is a critical aspect of your preparation. It aids in retention, revision, and ultimately, effective answer writing. Here are a few tips:

  1. Outline and Organize: Structure your notes by creating headings and subheadings. This helps in organizing the content and makes it easier to review later.
  2. Use Diagrams and Charts: Visual representations can help in better comprehension and recall of information.
  3. Keep it Brief: Your notes should be concise. Avoid writing long sentences and paragraphs.
  4. Update Regularly: As you progress in your preparation, keep updating your notes with new insights and examples.

After the pre exam, or after the result of pre exam, DO NOT try to make notes.  In 2-3 months, you might just revise the previously prepared notes or purchase notes from any reliable coaching.

4. Answer Writing Practice

This is the most important part of your civil services preparation. It is a skill, and like any other skill, it improves with practice. Here’s how you can master it:

Understand the Demand of the Question

Before you start writing, understand what the question is asking. Look for the directive words like ‘discuss’, ‘analyze’, ‘comment’, ‘evaluate’, etc. and shape your answer accordingly. A detailed discussion on this topic can be seen

Directive Meaning Approach with example
Evaluate To determine the value or worth of something, often by making a judgment or calculation. “Evaluate the impact of the Green Revolution in India” – Here, you are required to assess the outcomes of the Green Revolution, both positive (increased agricultural productivity, self-sufficiency in food grains) and negative (increased dependency on chemical fertilizers and pesticides, ecological imbalance).
Analyse To break down a concept or problem into simpler parts to gain a better understanding. “Analyse the reasons for the success of Green Revolution in India” – In this case, you will break down the components that contributed to the Green Revolution’s success, such as the introduction of high-yielding varieties, increased use of fertilizers and irrigation methods.
Discuss To talk or write about a topic in detail, considering different ideas and opinions. “Discuss the role of Green Revolution in India’s food security” – For this, you need to detail out how Green Revolution affected India’s food security, considering both the positive and negative aspects, along with different viewpoints.
Critically Analyse To examine in detail, with the intention of questioning or challenging the argument or assumptions. “Critically analyse the environmental implications of the Green Revolution in India” – This requires a detailed analysis of the environmental impacts of the Green Revolution, scrutinizing both the advantages (improved agricultural productivity) and disadvantages (soil degradation, water pollution, biodiversity loss).
Comment To give an opinion or reaction. This involves both description and offering your views. “Comment on the socio-economic effects of the Green Revolution in India” – Here, you need to present the socio-economic changes brought about by the Green Revolution and also provide your viewpoint on these changes.
Elucidate To clarify or explain something in detail. “Elucidate on the technological advancements brought about by the Green Revolution in India” – This involves a detailed explanation of the different technological advancements during the Green Revolution, like high-yielding varieties, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, etc. and how they impacted Indian agriculture.

Structure Your Answer

A well-structured answer has an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. The introduction should present a brief context or definition. The body should contain a detailed explanation or analysis, and the conclusion should provide a summary or a way forward.

Practice Daily

Make it a habit to write at least 2-3 answers daily. This will not only improve your writing speed but also help you understand how to present your points more effectively.

Oracle IAS has a daily answer writing course that you can enroll in. In this course, we shall post daily questions for practice and also provide model answers.

5. Revising Regularly

Revising is as important as reading. It helps consolidate your memory and ensures that you’re able to recall what you’ve studied.

Regular Revision

Try to revise your notes regularly. This could be weekly, fortnightly, or monthly, depending on your comfort. After the pre exam results, focus should mainly be on revision and less on acquiring new knowledge.

Multiple Revisions

Aim for at least 3-4 revisions of the entire syllabus before the exam. This will help solidify your understanding of the topics.

Revision Notes

Make separate revision notes that include key points, important facts, and diagrams. These notes should be brief and easy to review quickly.

6. Mock Tests and Self-Evaluation

Mock tests are a great way to simulate the exam environment and assess your preparation level.

Regular Mock Tests

Try to solve at least one full-length mock test every week. This will help you understand the paper pattern, improve your time management skills, and reduce exam anxiety.


After each mock test, analyze your performance. Identify your strengths and weaknesses, and work on improving them.

Discuss with your mentors and track your progress in answer writing.

7. Maintaining Physical and Mental Health

Last but not least, maintaining good physical and mental health is crucial for your preparation.

Regular Exercise

Include some form of physical activity in your daily routine. This could be yoga, aerobics, running, or any other exercise you enjoy.

Balanced Diet

Eat a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and protein. Avoid excessive consumption of caffeine and junk food.

Mental Health

Take regular breaks during your study sessions. Practice mindfulness or meditation to reduce stress and improve focus.


Preparing for the UPPCS Mains GS papers is a long journey that requires consistent hard work, smart study strategies, and a positive mindset. This ultimate guide provides you with a comprehensive roadmap for your preparation, covering everything from understanding the exam pattern and syllabus, gathering resources, making effective notes, to mastering answer writing, regular revision, and taking mock tests.

However, it’s crucial to remember that everyone’s learning style and pace is different. Use this guide as a reference, but be sure to adapt it to suit your individual needs and strengths.

Furthermore, always remember that maintaining good physical and mental health is as important as academic preparation. A balanced lifestyle will not only keep you healthy but also enhance your performance in the exam.

We hope this guide serves as a valuable resource in your preparation journey. Stay persistent, believe in yourself, and success will surely come your way. Good luck!

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