Day 2: GS 3, GS 4, UP 2
- Economic planning in India, objectives and achievements. Role of NITI Aayog, Pursuit of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s).
- Issues of Poverty, Unemployment, Social justice and inclusive growth.
- Critically examine the role of NITI Aayog in transforming India’s economic landscape. How does it differ from the erstwhile Planning Commission? (200 words)
The NITI Aayog replaced the Planning Commission in 2015. It has different objective and strategy with respect to economic planning and execution.
Role of NITI Aayog:
- Policy Formulation: NITI Aayog acts as government’s think tank for comprehensive policy formulation involving various stakeholders, including central ministries, states, and industry leaders.
- Cooperative and competitive Federalism: It has fostered greater coordination among the states and center, and at the same time competition among states for overall development.
- Fostering Innovation: Through programs like Atal Innovation Mission & SETU, it is catalyzing a new ecosystem of technological advancement.
- SDG Coordination: As the nodal agency for SDGs, NITI Aayog ensures that India’s policies align with these global targets.
- Monitoring and Evaluation: It monitors government programs and evaluates their outcomes, promoting accountability and effectiveness in governance.
Differences from the Planning Commission:
- Structural Difference: Unlike the Commission that followed a top-down model, NITI Aayog works on a bottom-up approach.
- Planning versus Policy Making: While the Planning Commission was focused on five-year plans, NITI Aayog has shifted the focus towards long-term policy-making and strategic consultation.
- Flexibility: The ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach of the Planning Commission has been replaced with tailored regional strategies.
- Resource Allocation: The Planning Commission was criticized for its role in resource allocation. NITI Aayog does not have this authority.
Despite its roles, NITI Aayog has been criticized for not achieving significant results. Its effectiveness in bringing cooperative federalism, inducing competition among states, and achieving its vision of ‘New India’ by 2022 has been questioned. The absence of financial powers has also limited its ability to drive change.
2. Despite several initiatives, poverty continues to be a major concern in India. Critically analyze the reasons behind the persistent problem of poverty in the country. (200 words).
As per the Tendulkar Committee report, India has ~22% of population below poverty line in 2011. The reasons for persistent poverty in India could be attributed to:
- Historical Legacy: The historical legacy of colonialism stunted economic development and resulted in widespread poverty, the impact of which persists today.
- Population Growth: India’s high population growth exacerbates poverty. With resources spread thinly, ensuring adequate living standards for all is challenging.
- Inadequate Job Creation: The slow pace of job creation, particularly in rural areas, leaves many in the trap of unemployment and underemployment, resulting in poverty.
- Agricultural Distress: Agriculture, the primary source of livelihood for many, suffers from issues like small landholdings, low productivity, and climate vulnerability, leading to rural poverty.
- Education and Skill Gap: Inadequate access to quality education and skill training impedes individuals’ earning potential, perpetuating the cycle of poverty.
- Regional Disparities: Certain regions, particularly in central and eastern India, have higher poverty rates due to factors like low industrialization and limited access to services.
- Social Inequalities: Caste, religious, and gender-based inequalities often result in certain groups being more vulnerable to poverty.
- Ineffectiveness of Anti-Poverty Programs: Despite numerous government schemes like MGNREGA and PDS, issues like corruption, leakage, poor targeting, and inadequate coverage limit their effectiveness.
Benefits of Globalization and Liberalization haven’t evenly trickled down, creating wealth disparities. However, significant strides have been made in poverty reduction. As per UNDP, India lifted 271 million people out of poverty between 2006 and 2016.
- Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human action, dimensions of ethics, ethics in private and public relationships.
- Illustrate the various dimensions of Ethics. Discuss their role in shaping human behavior and decision-making. (200 words)
The various dimensions of ethics are:
- Personal Ethics: Individual’s moral code, often influenced by upbringing, education, and personal experiences. It guide an individual’s actions in private life impacting one’s honesty, integrity, and empathy.
- Professional Ethics: They promote fairness, responsibility, respect, and transparency, shaping professional decisions and interactions.
- Descriptive Ethics: This dimension involves observing and describing people’s moral beliefs and behaviors. Understanding this helps in shaping policies that are sensitive to people’s ethical standpoints.
- Normative Ethics: This deals with determining what is moral and what is not. It sets standards for right and wrong, guiding decision-making and shaping laws and societal norms.
- Applied Ethics: This is the practical application of ethical considerations to real-world scenarios and promoting more conscientious decisions.
- Environmental Ethics: It shapes behavior towards environmental conservation and influences decisions related to sustainability.
- Social Ethics: They influence decision-making on societal issues like equality, justice, and human rights.
Each of these dimensions plays a crucial role in shaping human behavior and decision-making. For instance, an individual with a strong sense of personal ethics might act with honesty even when nobody is watching. Professional ethics can prevent corruption in offices, while normative ethics shapes societal norms about what is acceptable behavior. Applied ethics encourages ethical decision-making in real-world scenarios, promoting fairness and justice. Environmental ethics shapes our behavior towards nature and influences sustainable decision-making. Social ethics, on the other hand, promotes social harmony and guides decision-making on societal issues.
2. Explain the concept of ‘ethical dilemmas’. Provide real-life examples where individuals or organizations might face ethical dilemmas and how these might be resolved. (200 words)
Ethical dilemmas arise when one is confronted with two or more conflicting choices, where both cannot be simultaneously pursued. It involves the need to decide between two equally compelling moral imperatives, where choosing one would result in transgressing the other.
Some real-life examples ae:
- Example 1 – Patient Confidentiality vs Public Safety: A psychiatrist treats a patient who confides about a plan to harm someone. Here, the dilemma is between maintaining patient confidentiality (a professional ethical obligation) and protecting potential victim (a moral responsibility). Resolution may involve alerting authorities while maintaining as much confidentiality as possible.
- Example 2 – Corporate Profitability vs Environmental Responsibility: A company might face a dilemma between increasing profitability by cutting corners on environmental regulations and honoring their commitment to sustainability. The resolution could be embracing sustainable practices that, while initially costly, can lead to long-term profitability and public goodwill.
- Example 3 – Journalism – Right to Information vs Privacy: Journalists often grapple with the dilemma of reporting sensitive information (upholding the public’s right to know) and respecting privacy rights. This can be resolved by considering the public interest and necessity of information dissemination.
- Example 4 – Public Servants – Loyalty to Rules vs Compassion: A government officer may be torn between strictly implementing a rule and showing compassion in exceptional cases. The resolution might involve interpreting the rules in a more humane way, or lobbying for changes in policy to accommodate such exceptions.
The resolution might not always satisfy all ethical demands, but it strives for the best possible outcome under the given circumstances.
- Overview of Economy of UP: Main features of economy and State Budgets, Infrastructure and importance of Physical Resources.
- Trade, Commerce and industries of UP.
- Which are some focus and sunrise economic sectors in Uttar Pradesh? State the policies made by the govt to develop these sectors.(125 word)
The Focus economic Sectors in Uttar Pradesh are Food Processing and Dairy, Handloom and Textile, Information Technology,
Tourism, Micro, Small And Medium Enterprises, Electronics Manufacturing, Film and Renewable Energy etc. The sunrise sectors are Pharmaceuticals, Logistics & Warehousing, Electric Vehicle Manufacturing, and Defence & Aerospace.
The govt has brought following policies for promotion of these sectors:-
- Many sector specific policies have been declared to promote these sectrs like film, food processing, IT, solar etc.
- These policies provide capital subsidies, tax exemptions and ease of doing business by mimising approvals needed to start business.
- Tourism policy includes development of various circuits. similarly, infrastructure development is a big part of policy action.
- State also has a startup policy to encourage startups to set-up operations in the state.
UP has a target to become a $1 trillion economy, out of the $5 trillion target for India. These sectors will play an important part in that goal.
2. Describe the major industrial clusters in Uttar Pradesh and their key industries. (200 words)
The state of Uttar Pradesh in India is home to several major industrial clusters, driving the state’s economic growth and employment generation. Some of them are:
- Kanpur-Lucknow Cluster:
- Key Industries: Leather and leather goods, textiles and garments, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, engineering goods, and machinery.
- Noida-Greater Noida Cluster:
- Key Industries: Information technology (IT), software development, electronics, automotive, engineering, and garment manufacturing.
- Agra-Firozabad Cluster:
- Key Industries: Leather and leather goods, handicrafts, glassware, textiles, and tourism.
- Agra is famous for its leather footwear industry, while Firozabad is renowned for its glassware industry, particularly glass bangles and glass products. The cluster also benefits from Agra’s tourism sector.
- Ghaziabad-Meerut Cluster:
- Key Industries: Engineering goods, sports goods(in Meerut), metal products, bicycles, electrical equipment, textiles, and garments.
- Allahabad-Varanasi Cluster:
- Key Industries: Textiles, handicrafts, agro-based industries, tourism, and education.
- Varanasi is renowned for its silk weaving industry, while Bhadohi has a carpet industry.
- Saharanpur-Muzaffarnagar Cluster:
- Key Industries: Wood and furniture, paper and pulp, sugar, textiles, and metal products.
- Bareilly-Moradabad Cluster:
- Key Industries: Handicrafts, metalware, brassware, agro-based industries, and textiles.
- Bareilly is famous for its handicrafts, particularly zari work and embroidery. Moradabad is renowned for its brassware and metalware industry.
These industrial clusters have been instrumental in attracting investments, creating job opportunities, and contributing to the overall economic development of Uttar Pradesh. The state government has taken several initiatives to promote these clusters, including infrastructure development, skill enhancement programs, and providing a conducive business environment.
Schedule of the program:
UPPCS Daily Answer Writing Program
|Exam Date: 23rd– Sep 2023|
|Schedule for Daily Answer Writing
Start Date: 3rd– July 2023
|Date||Day||Subject 1||Subject 2||Subject 3|
|3-Jul||Monday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|6-Jul||Thursday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|10-Jul||Monday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|13-Jul||Thursday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|17-Jul||Monday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|20-Jul||Thursday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|24-Jul||Monday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|27-Jul||Thursday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|31-Jul||Monday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|3-Aug||Thursday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|7-Aug||Monday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|10-Aug||Thursday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|14-Aug||Monday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|17-Aug||Thursday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|21-Aug||Monday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|24-Aug||Thursday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|28-Aug||Monday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|31-Aug||Thursday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|4-Sep||Monday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
|7-Sep||Thursday||GS-1||GS 2||UP 1|
Mode of delivery: Online on Oracle IAS’s LMS
- User id and password will be provided to each candidate.
- Repository of all the questions and answers will be available from Day 1.
How the Daily UPPCS Answer Writing Program will be conducted?
- Topics from different subject for revision will be posted on the our Whatsapp/Telegram group.
- Next Day 2 questions per subject will be uploaded. (Total 6 Questions per day)
- Model Answer will be uploaded thereafter.
- Candidates have to self-evaluate their answers.
In total you will have 65+ days of answer writing practice with specific types of questions and answers.
Fees/Cost of the program:
Program Includes: 65+ days Daily Answer Writing + UPPCS Mains Solved Paper Book (Click Here for Sample)
Total Cost of the program: 1500 (answer writing)+ 450 (PYQ book) =
Rs. 1950 /- –> Rs. 1499/-
WhatsApp 999 7453844 for enrollment in the UPPCS Mains Daily Answer Writing Program.
Sample of the Book
Contact: Call/WhatsApp 9997453844 for details
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