Day 3 : GS 1, GS 2, UP 1
- The Freedom Struggle- its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
- Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country (till 1965A.D.).
- Evaluate the impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement on the various regions of India. Highlight how local factors shaped its progress and outcome in those regions. (200 words)
The Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22) under Gandhi’s leadership marked a significant phase in India’s struggle for freedom, deeply impacting various regions:
- Awadh: The Movement had a remarkable effect in Awadh due to agrarian distress & Khilafat grievances under the influence of the Nehrus and the Ali brothers. The peasantry interpreted the call for non-cooperation in their way and initiated the Eka movement against local landlords and colonial revenue systems.
- Gujarat: In Kheda and Bardoli, the Movement received immense support, largely due to Sardar Patel’s leadership. Ahmedabad’s textile workers played an active role, merging labor issues with the larger cause.
- Bengal: In Bengal, the anti-plantation drive shaped the course of the movement. Workers’ refusal to transport and merchandise foreign goods impacted the British economic interests significantly. Leaders like C.R. Das mobilized masses.
- Punjab: The Jallianwala Bagh massacre (1919) stoked anti-British sentiments, leading to massive participation in the movement. Local factors, such as resentment against the Rowlatt Act, significantly fueled its intensity.
- Southern India: Here, the movement had a relatively lower impact due to the dominance of moderate leaders who were skeptical of mass movements. However, in Malabar, the Moplah Rebellion, initially sparked by the Khilafat issue, spiraled into a communal riot, presenting a case where local dynamics shaped the movement’s nature.
In several areas, local economic issues like labor rights, anti-plantation drives, and oppressive land revenue policies shaped the movement, integrating the nationalist cause with local grievances.
2. Evaluate the success of the reorganization of Indian states on linguistic lines in 1956. What were its primary objectives and outcomes? (200 words)
The reorganization of Indian states in 1956, guided by linguistic lines, was a significant shift with the following objectives:
- Foster Unity: By acknowledging linguistic diversity, the goal was to unify India by accommodating diversity rather than suppressing it.
- Promote Administration: Linguistic homogeneity was seen as promoting easier governance, communication, and administration.
- Stem Separatist Sentiments: Recognizing linguistic identities was seen as a way to mitigate separatist sentiments and foster national integration.
- Promoted Regional Identity: The reorganization fostered a sense of regional pride and cultural preservation, while also reinforcing the notion of ‘unity in diversity’.
- Enhanced Governance: It led to easier administration and better governance due to language homogeneity.
- Economic Development: With better administrative control, states could tailor policies specific to their needs, leading to economic development.
The linguistic reorganization of states, despite some challenges, has largely been successful, leading to improved administration, cultural preservation, and strong political representation. On the downside, it sparked regionalism, demands for smaller states (such as Telangana from Andhra Pradesh), and inter-state resource disputes (like the water disputes between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu). Furthermore, protecting and promoting minority languages within these reorganized states is a lingering concern, as dominant linguistic communities often overshadow smaller ones.
Overall, it laid the foundation for the federal structure of India, allowing room for regional identities within the broader national identity.
- Role of Finance Commission in Centre- State financial relations.
- Separation of powers, dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions. Emergence and use of alternative dispute redressal mechanisms.
- Discuss the various recommendations of the 15th Finance Commission on the Centre-State financial relations in India. Have these recommendations been able to strike a balance between the financial autonomy of the states and the fiscal consolidation of the Centre? (200 words)
The 15th Finance Commission (FC) was headed by Mr. NK Singh. It recommended the following:
- Vertical and Horizontal Devolution: vertical devolution at 41% (of the divisible pool of taxes to states), like the 14th FC. For horizontal devolution, it has suggested 12.5% weightage to demographic performance, 45% to income, 15% each to population and area, 10% to forest and ecology and 2.5% to tax and fiscal efforts.
- Revenue Deficit Grants: suggested revenue deficit grants worth over Rs. 3 trillion.
- A separate provision for disaster risk management was suggested.
- Setting up of a non-lapsable fund for defence and internal security, to be funded by monetization of assets and disinvestment proceeds.
- Performance-based incentives in areas like power sector reforms, adoption of DBT, improving ease of doing business, etc.
The 15th FC has walked a tightrope between fiscal consolidation and state autonomy. The retention of 41% vertical devolution, revenue deficit grants, and the emphasis on health and disaster management reflect a move towards greater financial autonomy for the states. The performance-based incentives could drive the states to improve their fiscal management.
However, the use of Census 2011 data for devolution has led to states with better population control being penalized, stirring discontent among them. The non-lapsable fund for defence, funded through disinvestment, could potentially shrink the divisible pool, raising concerns about the Centre’s fiscal consolidation.
2. Analyze the role of Judiciary as a guardian of the Constitution in the context of separation of powers. Comment on the issues of judicial overreach in recent times. (200 words)
The separation of powers is vital for democratic governance. The judiciary, through judicial review, checks the legislative and executive branches, preventing any misuse of power. As the final interpreter of the Constitution, the Judiciary ensures that legislative and executive actions conform to constitutional provisions. It adjudicates disputes between the Centre and States, or between States, thereby preserving the federal structure. Furthermore, courts scrutinize laws and executive actions for violation of fundamental rights, safeguarding citizens’ liberties. Landmark judgments like the Keshavananda Bharati case (1973) defined the ‘Basic Structure’ doctrine, asserting that the Parliament cannot alter the Constitution’s fundamental essence.
Judicial activism involves the courts taking a proactive role, particularly when legislative or executive inaction infringes citizens’ rights. However, a line is drawn when judicial pronouncements start substituting policy decisions or enter domains traditionally under the legislative or executive purview—referred to as judicial overreach. Critics argue that recent interventions—like ordering the playing of the National Anthem in cinemas, or directives on liquor sale near highways—exemplify overreach. These actions, they argue, encroach upon policy-making, the executive’s domain. Similarly, directions regarding environmental norms or reservation policies often face criticism for overstepping the judiciary’s constitutional role.
Overreach may disrupt the delicate balance of power. It may lead to an imbalance, with the judiciary gaining ascendancy over other branches. The judiciary might lack the necessary expertise in policy areas it ventures into due to overreach, leading to sub-optimal decisions.
- Contributions of UP in Pre and post 1857 freedom struggles of India.
- Eminent freedom fighters and personalities of UP.
- Write a short note about the Revolt of 1857 in Uttar Pradesh.(200 words)
The area under UP was the nerve center of Indian Rebellion of 1857 and played the most important role in it. One of the major causes of the revolt was annexation of Awadh state by the British.
Key Centers of the Revolt:
- Meerut: The revolt started in Meerut when sepoys refused to use new cartridges and later attacked British officers.
- Kanpur: The revolt began in Kanpur with the mutiny of Indian soldiers. Nana Sahib played a crucial role and declared himself a deputy of King Bahadur Shah Zarar.
- Lucknow: Lucknow became a center of resistance with leaders like Begum Hazrat Mahal and Birjis Qadr. The British faced a siege in Lucknow residency.
- Bareilly: Subedar Bakht Khan rebelled and marched to Delhi, where he became the main leader of mutiny. Later Khan Bahadur Khan and Ahmadullah Shah led the civil rebellion in Bareilly.
- Jhansi : Was held by Rani Laxmi Bai and she tried to cut the British communications between Calcutta and Bombay.
Apart from that revolts happened in all major centers like Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Allahabad, Varanasi etc.
Impact and Legacy:
British brutally suppressed the revolt by 1858, when Lucknow was taken and Rani Laxmi Bai was killed.
- The revolt started in UP(Meerut) and its final flame also went out in UP(Lucknow and Jhansi).
- The revolt marked a turning point in British policies towards India, leading to the assumption of control by the British Crown.
- It inspired future generations of freedom fighters and laid the groundwork for the Indian independence movement.
2. What was the contribution of UP in the revolutionary movement during the freedom struggle of India.(125 words)
Uttar Pradesh (UP) was one of the major centers of revolutionary movement during the freedom struggle of India. Along with Bengal and Punjab, it became a hotbed of revolutionary activity in 1910s, 1920s and 1930s:
- Hindustan Republican Association was formed in Kanpur in 1924 by Bismil, Chandrasekhar Azad, and members of Anushilan Samiti of Bengal.
- Kakori Conspiracy: The daring act of the Kakori Train robbery in 1925, led by revolutionaries like Ram Prasad Bismil and Ashfaqulla Khan of the HRA , was a significant event in nation’s revolutionary history. It also led to hanging of Bismil, Khan, Rajendra Lahiri and Roshan Singh.
- HSRA(Hindustan Socialist Republican Association): After Kakori, HSRA was formed in Delhi and Chandra Shekhar Azad became its leader.
- Cities like Kanpur, Allahabad, and Lucknow emerged as important centers of revolutionary activities.
- With the encounter of Chandrasekhar Azad in 1931 in Prayagraj, the revolutionary movement suffered a big blow in UP.
Schedule of the program:
UPPCS Daily Answer Writing Program
Exam Date: 23rd– Sep 2023 Schedule for Daily Answer Writing
Start Date: 3rd– July 2023
Date Day Subject 1 Subject 2 Subject 3 3-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 4-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 5-Jul Wednesday Off 6-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 7-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 8-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi 9-Jul Sunday Off 10-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 11-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 12-Jul Wednesday Off 13-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 14-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 15-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi 16-Jul Sunday Off 17-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 18-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 19-Jul Wednesday Off 20-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 21-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 22-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi 23-Jul Sunday Off 24-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 25-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 26-Jul Wednesday Off 27-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 28-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 29-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi 30-Jul Sunday Off 31-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 1-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 2-Aug Wednesday Off 3-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 4-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 5-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi 6-Aug Sunday Off 7-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 8-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 9-Aug Wednesday Off 10-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 11-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 12-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi 13-Aug Sunday Off 14-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 15-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 16-Aug Wednesday Off 17-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 18-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 19-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi 20-Aug Sunday Off 21-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 22-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 23-Aug Wednesday Off 24-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 25-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 26-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi 27-Aug Sunday Off 28-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 29-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 30-Aug Wednesday Off 31-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 1-Sep Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 2-Sep Saturday Essay/Hindi 3-Sep Sunday Off 4-Sep Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 5-Sep Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 6-Sep Wednesday Off 7-Sep Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 8-Sep Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 9-Sep Saturday Essay/Hindi
Mode of delivery: Online on Oracle IAS’s LMS
- User id and password will be provided to each candidate.
- Repository of all the questions and answers will be available from Day 1.
How the Daily UPPCS Answer Writing Program will be conducted?
- Topics from different subject for revision will be posted on the our Whatsapp/Telegram group.
- Next Day 2 questions per subject will be uploaded. (Total 6 Questions per day)
- Model Answer will be uploaded thereafter.
- Candidates have to self-evaluate their answers.
In total you will have 65+ days of answer writing practice with specific types of questions and answers.
Fees/Cost of the program:
Program Includes: 65+ days Daily Answer Writing + UPPCS Mains Solved Paper Book (Click Here for Sample)
Total Cost of the program: 1500 (answer writing)+ 450 (PYQ book) =
Rs. 1950 /-–> Rs. 1499/-
WhatsApp 999 7453844 for enrollment in the UPPCS Mains Daily Answer Writing Program.
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