Day 3 : GS 1, GS 2, UP 1

GS 1


  1. Evaluate the impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement on the various regions of India. Highlight how local factors shaped its progress and outcome in those regions. (200 words)

The Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22) under Gandhi’s leadership marked a significant phase in India’s struggle for freedom, deeply impacting various regions:

In several areas, local economic issues like labor rights, anti-plantation drives, and oppressive land revenue policies shaped the movement, integrating the nationalist cause with local grievances.

2. Evaluate the success of the reorganization of Indian states on linguistic lines in 1956. What were its primary objectives and outcomes? (200 words)

The reorganization of Indian states in 1956, guided by linguistic lines, was a significant shift with the following objectives:


The linguistic reorganization of states, despite some challenges, has largely been successful, leading to improved administration, cultural preservation, and strong political representation. On the downside, it sparked regionalism, demands for smaller states (such as Telangana from Andhra Pradesh), and inter-state resource disputes (like the water disputes between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu). Furthermore, protecting and promoting minority languages within these reorganized states is a lingering concern, as dominant linguistic communities often overshadow smaller ones.

Overall, it laid the foundation for the federal structure of India, allowing room for regional identities within the broader national identity.

GS 2


  1. Discuss the various recommendations of the 15th Finance Commission on the Centre-State financial relations in India. Have these recommendations been able to strike a balance between the financial autonomy of the states and the fiscal consolidation of the Centre? (200 words)

The 15th Finance Commission (FC) was headed by Mr. NK Singh. It recommended the following:

  1. Vertical and Horizontal Devolution: vertical devolution at 41% (of the divisible pool of taxes to states), like the 14th FC. For horizontal devolution, it has suggested 12.5% weightage to demographic performance, 45% to income, 15% each to population and area, 10% to forest and ecology and 2.5% to tax and fiscal efforts.
  2. Revenue Deficit Grants: suggested revenue deficit grants worth over Rs. 3 trillion.
  3. A separate provision for disaster risk management was suggested.
  4. Setting up of a non-lapsable fund for defence and internal security, to be funded by monetization of assets and disinvestment proceeds.
  5. Performance-based incentives in areas like power sector reforms, adoption of DBT, improving ease of doing business, etc.

The 15th FC has walked a tightrope between fiscal consolidation and state autonomy. The retention of 41% vertical devolution, revenue deficit grants, and the emphasis on health and disaster management reflect a move towards greater financial autonomy for the states. The performance-based incentives could drive the states to improve their fiscal management.

However, the use of Census 2011 data for devolution has led to states with better population control being penalized, stirring discontent among them. The non-lapsable fund for defence, funded through disinvestment, could potentially shrink the divisible pool, raising concerns about the Centre’s fiscal consolidation.

2. Analyze the role of Judiciary as a guardian of the Constitution in the context of separation of powers. Comment on the issues of judicial overreach in recent times. (200 words)

The separation of powers is vital for democratic governance. The judiciary, through judicial review, checks the legislative and executive branches, preventing any misuse of power. As the final interpreter of the Constitution, the Judiciary ensures that legislative and executive actions conform to constitutional provisions. It adjudicates disputes between the Centre and States, or between States, thereby preserving the federal structure. Furthermore, courts scrutinize laws and executive actions for violation of fundamental rights, safeguarding citizens’ liberties. Landmark judgments like the Keshavananda Bharati case (1973) defined the ‘Basic Structure’ doctrine, asserting that the Parliament cannot alter the Constitution’s fundamental essence.

Judicial activism involves the courts taking a proactive role, particularly when legislative or executive inaction infringes citizens’ rights. However, a line is drawn when judicial pronouncements start substituting policy decisions or enter domains traditionally under the legislative or executive purview—referred to as judicial overreach. Critics argue that recent interventions—like ordering the playing of the National Anthem in cinemas, or directives on liquor sale near highways—exemplify overreach. These actions, they argue, encroach upon policy-making, the executive’s domain. Similarly, directions regarding environmental norms or reservation policies often face criticism for overstepping the judiciary’s constitutional role.

Overreach may disrupt the delicate balance of power. It may lead to an imbalance, with the judiciary gaining ascendancy over other branches. The judiciary might lack the necessary expertise in policy areas it ventures into due to overreach, leading to sub-optimal decisions.

UP 1


  1. Write a short note about the Revolt of 1857 in Uttar Pradesh.(200 words)

The area under UP was the nerve center of Indian Rebellion of 1857 and played the most important role in it. One of the major causes of the revolt was annexation of Awadh state by the British.

Key Centers of the Revolt:

Apart from that revolts happened in all major centers like Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Allahabad, Varanasi etc.

Impact and Legacy:

British brutally suppressed the revolt by 1858, when Lucknow was taken and Rani Laxmi Bai was killed.

2. What was the contribution of UP in the revolutionary movement during the freedom struggle of India.(125 words)

Uttar Pradesh (UP) was one of the major centers of revolutionary movement during the freedom struggle of India. Along with Bengal and Punjab, it became a hotbed of revolutionary activity in 1910s, 1920s and 1930s:

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