Day 4: GS 3, GS 4, UP 2

GS 3


  • Components of Government Budgets and Financial System.
  • Major Crops, Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems, storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce, e-technology in the aid of farmers.
  1. Explain the term ‘fiscal deficit’ in the context of a government budget. How does fiscal deficit impact the economic stability of a nation? (200 words)

A government budget may be in deficit or surplus. Fiscal deficit arises when the government’s total expenditure, including spending on public services, infrastructure, and subsidies, exceeds its total revenue from taxes and other non-debt sources. The deficit is financed through borrowing from the domestic market and external sources. This borrowing is not inherently bad and can stimulate economic growth when effectively utilized.

The fiscal deficit has multifaceted impacts on an economy:

    • Economic Growth: Government borrowing for productive activities can induce economic growth by stimulating demand and developing infrastructure.
    • Interest Rates: Increased government borrowing can lead to higher interest rates as the demand for funds in the economy rises, potentially crowding out private investment.
    • Inflation: Excessive borrowing can lead to inflation if the demand created by government spending exceeds the economy’s productive capacity.
    • Public Debt: Persistent deficits increase public debt, and a large portion of government revenue may be used for debt servicing, reducing funds available for development expenditure.
    • External Sector: High fiscal deficits can impact the balance of payments if the deficit is financed by external borrowing or if it leads to excessive demand for imports.

Maintaining economic stability is a delicate balance. While a moderate fiscal deficit can stimulate economic growth, an excessively high fiscal deficit can lead to economic instability. Therefore, governments aim for fiscal consolidation to ensure sustainable levels of fiscal deficit.

FRBM Act 2003 aims to maintain fiscal stability by setting targets for deficit and public debt. While maintaining fiscal discipline is crucial, during economic crises or recessions, higher fiscal deficits might be necessary to stimulate the economy. The COVID-19 pandemic is a case in point.

2. E-technology is increasingly being used in agriculture. Discuss the various ways e-technology can aid farmers in India. Evaluate the current status of adoption and use of e-technology in Indian agriculture. (200 words)

 E-technology, with its wide-ranging capabilities, has tremendous potential to transform Indian agriculture by:

  • Access to Information: E-technology offers farmers real-time access to weather forecasts, market prices, and latest agricultural practices. Platforms like ‘e-Krishi Kiran’ and ‘Kisan Suvidha’ provide crop-specific advisories.
  • Precision Farming: GPS-enabled devices can provide data for soil analysis, leading to precision farming. Farmers can optimize inputs, reduce costs, and increase crop yields.
  • Digital Learning: Farmers can access online courses and workshops on advanced farming techniques, pest management, organic farming, etc., which can help improve their farming practices and productivity.
  • E-Markets: Online platforms like e-NAM help eliminate middlemen, offering farmers a better price for their produce by connecting them directly with buyers across the country.
  • Financial Inclusion: Digitized financial services facilitate quick and hassle-free transactions, insurance, credit, and subsidy disbursal.
  • Blockchain in Agriculture: Blockchain technology can enhance transparency and traceability in the agricultural supply chain. Digital Agriculture mission is a move in this direction.

The adoption of e-technology in Indian agriculture is in the nascent stage. Despite the government’s initiatives like Digital India, many challenges persist. The digital divide between rural and urban areas, low levels of digital literacy among farmers, poor internet connectivity, and language barriers hinder the widespread adoption of these technologies.

Furthermore, the small and fragmented landholdings in India make it financially unviable for individual farmers to invest in high-cost precision farming equipment. Cybersecurity is another concern, as agriculture data could be sensitive and its mishandling might affect farmers’ interests.

GS 4


Human Values-lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators, role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values

  1. Evaluate the role of the family in inculcating human values. Discuss how this role has evolved in the context of modern society and globalization. (200 words)

The family plays a vital role in instilling human values at early stages of human personality development:

  • Primary Socialization Agency: It imparts core values such as respect, honesty, and compassion, shaping individuals’ ethical frameworks.
  • Role Modeling: Parents and siblings often serve as role models, influencing behavior, and attitudes. Observational learning in families can foster values like cooperation and empathy.
  • Cultural Transmission: Family traditions and practices pass on cultural values, ensuring their preservation and continuity across generations.
  • Discipline and Guidance: Family provides guidance on social behavior and discipline, reinforcing the importance of rules, patience, and responsibility.
  • Support and Security: Families provide emotional support and security, fostering values of love, solidarity, and care for others.

Evolution in the role of families in value inculcation due to modernity and globalization:

  • Declining Joint Families: The shift from joint to nuclear families may limit the transmission of traditional values and wisdom of older generations. However, it could also foster individualistic values like self-reliance.
  • Globalization: Global media and communication technologies expose families to diverse cultural values. This exposure can dilute traditional family values but also encourages values of tolerance and multiculturalism.
  • Changing Gender Roles: The growing acceptance of gender equality in families has begun to challenge traditional patriarchal values, fostering values of equity and respect for all genders.
  • Work-Family Balance: The rise in dual-career families has necessitated values of shared responsibilities, cooperation, and time management.

Despite transformations in family structures and the advent of globalization, families continue to serve as a crucial foundation for moral guidance.

2. Choose any one great leader or reformer from Indian history and discuss how their teachings can be applied to address a present-day social issue. (200 words)

Kautilya’s teachings are relevant to modern governance. Kautilya believed in a strong, centralized state with a benevolent ruler who prioritizes the welfare of the citizens. The ruler should maintain law and order, ensure justice, and promote economic development and trade.

Application to Modern Social Issue – Corruption: One of the pressing social issues in contemporary India is corruption. Kautilya’s teachings can offer valuable insights to address this issue.

    • Rule of Law: Kautilya was a strong proponent of rule of law. He asserted that laws should be just, clear, and uniformly applied. This principle can help ensure transparency and prevent misuse of power.
    • Strict Punishment: Kautilya believed in strict punishments for corrupt practices, a principle that could deter corruption if implemented effectively in today’s scenario.
    • State Responsibility: Kautilya saw the state as a guardian of people’s welfare. In today’s context, this implies the responsibility of the government to ensure clean administration and provision of services without corruption.
    • Public Participation: Kautilya emphasized the role of citizens in governance. Encouraging citizen participation and fostering a culture of integrity can be an effective strategy against corruption.
    • Efficient Administration: According to Kautilya, an efficient and well-structured administrative system is crucial for good governance. Modern India can take cues from this to streamline its bureaucratic processes, reducing opportunities for corruption.

The Indian government’s measures like the RTI Act and digitalization of services resonate with Kautilya’s philosophy. However, there is a need for stricter enforcement of anti-corruption laws, bolstering of institutional capacity, and promotion of ethical norms in line with Kautilya’s teachings.

UP 2


  • UP Government Schemes, Projects and Planned Development for welfare of People, Human Resources and Skill Development.
  • Investment in U P: Issues and Impact
  1. What are the main problems of economic planning in UP? (125 words)

The main problems of Economic Planning in UP are:

  • High population: UP has a population of more than 20 crores. That makes it difficult to plan efficiently.
  • Regional disparities: The eastern, western, southern and central part of UP are very different in economic development as well as social development indicators.
  • Resource scarcity: UP has a lack of resources in commensurate with its population. From water to minerals like coal, iron and crude oil, UP is dependent on other states and import.
  • Lack of skill: Lack of skill in the working population, combined with other factors, leads to constrained capacity for industrial expansion.
  • Lack of reliable data: The economic data for the state is often lacking and unreliable.
  • Lack of Capacity: Finally, there is the issue of lack of expertise for planning in the state. Like NITI Ayog, the recently setup State Transformation Commission (STC) is trying to correct the situation.

2. What are the key challenges faced by Uttar Pradesh (UP) in attracting investments?(200 words)

Investments are a necessary condition for economic growth. Although UP is attracting good amount of investments in recent years, some challenges remain which don’t allow the state to grow faster:

  • Bureaucratic Hurdles and Complex Regulations:
    • Cumbersome administrative processes and bureaucratic red tape make it difficult for businesses to establish and operate in Uttar Pradesh.
    • Although in recent years, govt has taken steps to improve ease of doing business and UP now ranks at 2.
  • Land acquisition :
    • The land is expensive and because mostly it is farmland, owners do not wish to readily part with it, especially in areas near cities.
    • Delays and complexities in land acquisition procedures create obstacles for investors looking to establish their businesses in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Inadequate Infrastructure:
    • Lack of modern infrastructure, including road networks, power supply, and logistics, hampers industrial growth and discourages potential investors. In rural areas, where land is cheaper this becomes a bigger issue.
  • Skilled Workforce Shortage:
    • Despite huge population, limited availability of skilled and trained manpower in Uttar Pradesh is a significant challenge for industries seeking to invest.
  • Law and Order Concerns:
    • Instances of law and order issues, including crime rates and instances of social unrest, can create an unfavorable investment climate.
  • Perception of Corruption:
    • The perception of corruption in the state government machinery can discourage potential investors.

Addressing these challenges requires concerted efforts from the government to improve infrastructure, strengthen the business environment, invest in skill development programs, ensure law and order, and enhance transparency and governance.

  • Schedule of the program:

    UPPCS Daily Answer Writing Program

    Exam Date: 23rd– Sep 2023
    Schedule for Daily Answer Writing

    Start Date: 3rd– July 2023

    Date Day Subject 1 Subject 2 Subject 3
    3-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    4-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    5-Jul Wednesday Off
    6-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    7-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    8-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi
    9-Jul Sunday Off
    10-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    11-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    12-Jul Wednesday Off
    13-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    14-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    15-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi
    16-Jul Sunday Off
    17-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    18-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    19-Jul Wednesday Off
    20-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    21-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    22-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi
    23-Jul Sunday Off
    24-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    25-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    26-Jul Wednesday Off
    27-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    28-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    29-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi
    30-Jul Sunday Off
    31-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    1-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    2-Aug Wednesday Off
    3-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    4-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    5-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi
    6-Aug Sunday Off
    7-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    8-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    9-Aug Wednesday Off
    10-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    11-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    12-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi
    13-Aug Sunday Off
    14-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    15-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    16-Aug Wednesday Off
    17-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    18-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    19-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi
    20-Aug Sunday Off
    21-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    22-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    23-Aug Wednesday Off
    24-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    25-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    26-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi
    27-Aug Sunday Off
    28-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    29-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    30-Aug Wednesday Off
    31-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    1-Sep Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    2-Sep Saturday Essay/Hindi
    3-Sep Sunday Off
    4-Sep Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    5-Sep Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    6-Sep Wednesday Off
    7-Sep Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1
    8-Sep Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2
    9-Sep Saturday Essay/Hindi

    Mode of delivery:  Online on  Oracle IAS’s LMS

    • User id and password will be provided to each candidate.
    • Repository of all the questions and answers will be available from Day 1.

    How the Daily UPPCS Answer Writing Program will be conducted?

    • Topics from different subject for revision will be posted on the our Whatsapp/Telegram group.
    • Next Day 2 questions per subject will be uploaded. (Total 6 Questions per day)
    • Model Answer will be uploaded thereafter.
    • Candidates have to self-evaluate their answers.

    In total you will have 65+ days of answer writing practice with specific types of questions and answers.

    Fees/Cost of the program:

    Program Includes: 65+ days Daily Answer Writing + UPPCS Mains Solved Paper Book (Click Here for Sample)

    Total Cost of the program:  1500 (answer writing)+ 450 (PYQ book) = Rs. 1950 /- –> Rs. 1499/-

    To Order UPPCS Mains Solved Paper Book: Click Here

    WhatsApp 999 7453844 for enrollment in the UPPCS Mains Daily Answer Writing Program.

    Sample of the Book


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