Day 6: GS 1, GS 2, UP 1
- History of the world will include events from 18th century to middle of the 20th century such as French revolution of 1789, industrial revolution, World Wars, redraw of national boundaries, Socialism, Nazism, Fascism etc-their forms and effect on the society.
Analyze the socio-economic impacts of the French Revolution of 1789 on the subsequent European societies. Discuss how the French Revolution influenced the rise of nationalism. (200 words)
The French Revolution of 1789 was a watershed movement that changed had a profound effect on every aspect of humanity.
- Elimination of Feudalism: It enabled the redistribution of lands to the peasantry, increasing productivity and ushering economic growth.
- Birth of Capitalism: It catalyzed industrialization and modernization, transforming the socio-economic fabric of European societies.
- Urbanization: Industrial capitalism encouraged urbanization, causing a rural-urban shift. This change contributed to the emergence of new social classes, altering socio-economic relations.
- Social Equality: The revolution established ‘Liberty, Equality, Fraternity’ as fundamental values. It propelled the end of aristocratic privileges, promoting social equality and mobility.
Rise of Nationalism:
- Concept of Nation-State: The French Revolution advanced the idea of the ‘Nation-State’, where the legitimacy of the state derived from its citizens. This revolutionary idea inspired nationalism in other European societies.
- Spread of Revolutionary Ideas: Facilitated by Napoleon’s conquests, instigated nationalistic movements across Europe, notably in Germany and Italy, leading to their unification.
- End of Dynastic Rule: Marked the end of absolute monarchy and led to the rise of republican ideals.
- Cultural Nationalism: The revolution established French as the language of diplomacy, stimulating cultural nationalism. The promotion of a common language, culture, and history became instrumental in building national identity.
Despite the transformative impacts, the revolution also had unintended consequences. It resulted in decades of socio-political instability and conflict. The rise of nationalism led to wars, conquests, and subsequent backlash.
Contrast the theoretical underpinnings of Nazism and Fascism. How did these ideologies lead to human rights violations during the 20th century? (200 words)
Nazism and Fascism are rooted in authoritarian principles. Though they share some similarities but are distinct in the following manner:
- Racial Superiority: Nazism, led by Adolf Hitler in Germany, was underpinned by a belief in Aryan supremacy. Non-Aryan races were deemed inferior and targeted for extermination.
- Anti-Semitism: It led to horrific genocide of six million Jews during the Holocaust.
- Lebensraum: It advocated the expansion of German territory for the ‘master race’, justifying aggressive invasions of neighboring nations.
- Führerprinzip: This principle asserted the infallible authority of the Führer (leader), resulting in a highly centralized and dictatorial rule.
- Nationalism: Led by Benito Mussolini in Italy, Fascism emphasized absolute loyalty to the state and collective over individual rights. Fascist regimes upheld strict control over society, suppressing dissent.
- Corporatism: Fascism advocated a corporatist economic system where interests of the state, employer, and worker are represented in governmental decisions, discarding class struggle.
- Militarism: Fascist regimes were often expansionist and militaristic, seeking to build empires and glorify the nation-state through warfare.
- Anti-Communism: Fascism stood as a bulwark against the rise of international communism, protecting private property and the social order.
Both the ideologies that led to grave Human Rights Violations during World War 2:
- Genocide and War Crimes: The racial purity doctrine of Nazism led to the Holocaust. Both ideologies, through their militaristic policies, were responsible for countless war crimes.
- Suppression of Freedoms: Both regimes suppressed civil liberties, including freedom of speech, association, and the press.
- Persecution of Minorities: Both ideologies targeted minority groups – Nazism with its racial policies and Fascism through its nationalist emphasis.
- Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other major democratic countries.
- Parliament and State legislatures- structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers and privileges and concerned issues.
Assess the role and independence of the judiciary in India and compare it with the judicial systems of United States and the United Kingdom. (200 words)
Judiciary plays a significant role in the democratic governance of India:
- Constitutional Role: The Judiciary in India interprets the constitution, acts as its guardian, and prevents any legislative or executive actions that violate it.
- Protection of Fundamental Rights: It safeguards citizens’ rights against infringement by the state or other entities, ensuring human dignity and freedom.
- Judicial Review: The power of judicial review ensures that laws and actions are constitutionally valid. It checks the arbitrary use of power by the state.
The Judiciary in India enjoys independence in its functioning. Judges are appointed through collegium system, and their tenure and salaries are constitutionally protected.
Comparison with US and UK Judicial system:
- US Judiciary: The US follows a federal structure, where federal courts adjudicate on federal laws, and state courts on state laws. Its Supreme Court exercises judicial review.
- UK Judiciary: UK follows a unitary system, where the Supreme Court is the final court of appeal. Unlike India and the US, UK doesn’t have a written constitution, hence judicial review in the UK is about compliance with laws, not a constitution.
All three countries have independent judiciaries, with judges having security of tenure to protect from political pressures. The power of judicial review is common to India and the US. However, India’s judiciary has more extensive powers of judicial review due to its constitutional framework. The US has a more political appointment process for judges, while the UK has a transparent appointment process ensuring less political influence.
Discuss the collective and individual Parliamentary privileges in India. What are the various sources of Parliamentary Privileges in India? (200 words)
Parliamentary privileges are special rights and immunities enjoyed by the two Houses of Parliament, their committees, and members to effectively discharge functions.
- The right to publish reports, debates, and proceedings and prohibit others from publishing the same.
- Exclude strangers from its proceedings
- Make rules to regulate its own procedure
- Punish members as well as outsiders for breach of privileges or contempt of Parliament
- Right to receive immediate information of the arrest, detention, conviction, imprisonment, and release of a member.
- Freedom of Speech: MPs cannot be held accountable in any court for any speech in the Parliament or its committees.
- Freedom from Arrest: In civil cases, during and 40 days before and after the session.
- Right to Refuse Evidence: MPs cannot be compelled to give evidence relating to proceedings in the House or its committees.
Sources of Parliamentary Privileges:
- Constitution: The key source is the Constitution itself (Articles 105 for Parliament and 194 for State Legislatures).
- Laws: Laws enacted by Parliament also define certain privileges. For example, The Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Act, 1959.
- Parliamentary Conventions: Many privileges are based on British Parliamentary conventions, recognized and followed over time.
- House Rules: Rules formulated by each House for regulation of its business also confer certain privileges.
- Judicial Interpretations: Supreme Court and High Court decisions on matters of privileges also form a source.
The privileges, although essential, have been contentious due to their potential misuse. Calls for codification and clarity on privileges have been voiced to prevent such issues.
- Rural, Urban and Tribal issues: social structure, festivals, fairs, music, folk dances, literature and languages/dialects, social customs of UP.
“The Bhakti literature of UP has impacted not only the state, but entire north India.” Discuss with examples.
The Bhakti movement in medieval India had UP as one of its major centers due to presence of Varanasi, Mathura etc. The literature of Surdas, Tulsidas, Kabirdas, Ravidas etc. impacted entire north India in different ways: –
- Development of languages: – Their poetic compositions in Awadhi and Brajbhasha contributed to development of these languages. They enriched Hindi( Khadiboli) and most of the sayings in Khadiboli are borrowed from such literature. Thus, entire north India was affected.
- Social structure: The literature emphasized social equality, seeking God through personal devotion and asserted right of common people in religion. Thus, poets like Kabirdas and Ravidas criticized social system and paved the way for a more equal and inclusive society in north India.
Bhakti movement: The religious dimension cannot be overlooked. By rendering Ramayana in Awadhi, or describing Krishna’s doings in Brajabhasa and distilling wisdom of Upanishads in contemporary language and idiom, they strengthened the faith of people in religion.
What are the major factors contributing to the proliferation of slums in urban areas of Uttar Pradesh?
According to 2011 census, about 63 lakh people lived in slums in UP. The proliferation of slums in urban areas of Uttar Pradesh (UP) can be attributed to several major factors:
- Rapid Urbanization: The rapid influx of people from rural areas to urban centers in UP has led to increased pressure on housing and infrastructure.
- Lack of Affordable Housing: The scarcity of affordable housing options in urban areas is a significant factor contributing to the growth of slums. Many low-income individuals and families are unable to afford formal housing due to rising property prices and limited access to credit or housing subsidies. Many of them work in houses or offices in cities and are unable to commute from suburbs of cities.
- Inadequate Urban Planning and Land Management: Poor urban planning, weak land management policies, and insufficient land allocation for affordable housing exacerbate the slum proliferation. This also shows in lack of vertical growth in our cities.
- Lack of Basic Services and Infrastructure: Inadequate provision of infrastructure and services further perpetuates the cycle of poverty and deprivation in slums.
- Social Exclusion and Marginalization: Certain communities are forced to live in ghettos and slums due to discrimination they face in other parts of city.
Addressing the proliferation of slums in urban areas of UP requires a comprehensive approach that focuses on affordable housing, urban planning, provision of basic services, and inclusive development. Efforts should be made to provide secure tenure, improve infrastructure, promote skill development, and ensure social and economic inclusion for slum dwellers.
Schedule of the program:
UPPCS Daily Answer Writing Program
Exam Date: 23rd– Sep 2023 Schedule for Daily Answer Writing
Start Date: 3rd– July 2023
Date Day Subject 1 Subject 2 Subject 3 3-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 4-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 5-Jul Wednesday Off 6-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 7-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 8-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi 9-Jul Sunday Off 10-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 11-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 12-Jul Wednesday Off 13-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 14-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 15-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi 16-Jul Sunday Off 17-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 18-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 19-Jul Wednesday Off 20-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 21-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 22-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi 23-Jul Sunday Off 24-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 25-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 26-Jul Wednesday Off 27-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 28-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 29-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi 30-Jul Sunday Off 31-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 1-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 2-Aug Wednesday Off 3-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 4-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 5-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi 6-Aug Sunday Off 7-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 8-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 9-Aug Wednesday Off 10-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 11-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 12-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi 13-Aug Sunday Off 14-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 15-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 16-Aug Wednesday Off 17-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 18-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 19-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi 20-Aug Sunday Off 21-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 22-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 23-Aug Wednesday Off 24-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 25-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 26-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi 27-Aug Sunday Off 28-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 29-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 30-Aug Wednesday Off 31-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 1-Sep Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 2-Sep Saturday Essay/Hindi 3-Sep Sunday Off 4-Sep Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 5-Sep Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 6-Sep Wednesday Off 7-Sep Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 8-Sep Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 9-Sep Saturday Essay/Hindi
Mode of delivery: Online on Oracle IAS’s LMS
- User id and password will be provided to each candidate.
- Repository of all the questions and answers will be available from Day 1.
How the Daily UPPCS Answer Writing Program will be conducted?
- Topics from different subject for revision will be posted on the our Whatsapp/Telegram group.
- Next Day 2 questions per subject will be uploaded. (Total 6 Questions per day)
- Model Answer will be uploaded thereafter.
- Candidates have to self-evaluate their answers.
In total you will have 65+ days of answer writing practice with specific types of questions and answers.
Fees/Cost of the program:
Program Includes: 65+ days Daily Answer Writing + UPPCS Mains Solved Paper Book (Click Here for Sample)
Total Cost of the program: 1500 (answer writing)+ 450 (PYQ book) =
Rs. 1950 /-–> Rs. 1499/-
WhatsApp 999 7453844 for enrollment in the UPPCS Mains Daily Answer Writing Program.
Sample of the Book