Day 7: GS 3, GS 4, UP 2
- Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices, Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, Limitations, revamping, issues of buffer stocks and food security, Technology missions in agriculture.
Critically analyze the impact of direct and indirect farm subsidies on the agricultural sector in India. (200 words)
Farm Subsidies are Government incentives paid to farmers & agri-businesses to supplement their income to influence the cost and supply of such commodities. Farm subsidies constitute about 2% of India’s GDP.
- Income Support: Direct subsidies like PM-KISAN provide income support to farmers, helping them invest in better inputs and meet immediate financial needs.
- Ease of Transfer: With digitalization and bank account penetration, direct subsidies reach intended beneficiaries more effectively, reducing leakages.
- Insufficient Amounts: The quantum of direct subsidies often falls short in tackling the financial constraints of farmers, especially small and marginal ones.
- Inequitable Distribution: Critics argue that large and prosperous farmers often disproportionately benefit from these subsidies, while needy farmers continue to struggle.
- Input Cost Reduction: Subsidies on electricity, water, fertilizers, etc., reduce the cost of inputs, potentially improving the economic viability of farming.
- Boost to Production: These subsidies can enhance agricultural productivity by encouraging the use of modern inputs and techniques.
- Resource Misuse: Indirect subsidies often lead to misuse of resources. For example, electricity subsidies lead to over-exploitation of groundwater.
- Fiscal Burden: The cost of providing indirect subsidies is immense, straining government finances and diverting resources from other critical sectors like health and education.
The Government should take steps to rationalize farm subsidies and invest more on capital formation, R&D in agriculture. This will improve agriculture productivity and make agriculture more remunerative.
Discuss the role of the Minimum Support Price (MSP) in ensuring farmer welfare. What are some challenges in its implementation and what reforms can be undertaken to enhance its effectiveness? (200 words)
MSP is a government policy aimed at ensuring fair prices to farmers, thereby safeguarding them against any sharp fall in farm prices. The CACP announces MSP for 22 crops. It ensures farmer welfare in following ways:
- Guaranteed Prices: MSP provides an assured price to farmers for their produce, mitigating risks associated with fluctuating market prices and ensuring a stable income.
- Cushion Against Exploitation: It acts as a safety net against exploitative practices of middlemen, offering a fair price based on the cost of production.
- Promote Crop Diversity: MSP is fixed for various crops, encouraging crop diversification and reducing dependency on certain crops like rice and wheat.
- Creditworthiness: Assured MSP income improves farmers’ creditworthiness, enabling them to access loans and agricultural inputs more easily.
Challenges in Implementation of MSP:
- Limited Coverage: MSP benefits only a small percentage of farmers, mostly from affluent states like Punjab and Haryana, leaving behind the majority, especially small and marginal farmers.
- Procurement Bias: Procurement is largely confined to rice and wheat, leading to neglect of other crops and perpetuating monoculture, which is harmful to soil health.
- Fiscal Burden & Inflation: Open-ended procurement of paddy and wheat at MSPs is completely out of sync with market prices and lead to fiscal burden. Overreliance on MSP can lead to increased government procurement, causing inflation, food surplus, and wastage due to inadequate storage.
- Excess storage: MSP without sufficient storage has resulted in huge piling of stocks in the warehouses
The procurement policy of the government needs reforms that are easier to implement. Efforts must be made to balance market price and farmers’ support. Cash transfer gives better choices to farmers than imposing subsidies.
- Attitude: Content, structure, function, its influence and relation with thought and behavior, moral and political attitudes, social influence and persuasion.
Critically evaluate the structure and function of attitude. How does it influence thought and behavior? Give suitable examples to justify your answer. (200 words)
Attitude structure comprises three key components:
- Affective Component: This represents our feelings or emotional reactions towards an attitude object. For instance, an individual may feel scared about spiders.
- Cognitive Component: This involves the beliefs or knowledge about an attitude object. A person might believe that spiders are dangerous.
- Behavioral Component: This concerns the way we behave or intend to behave towards an object. The person might avoid places where spiders may be present.
Function of Attitude:
- Instrumental Function: Our attitudes often serve to maximize rewards and minimize penalties. A positive attitude towards studying can lead to good academic performance.
- Ego-defensive Function: Attitudes sometimes help us defend our self-image and deny uncomfortable truths. For example, a smoker might downplay health risks to justify his habit.
- Value-expressive Function: Attitudes allow us to express our core values and identity. A person may oppose capital punishment, reflecting his belief in the sanctity of life.
- Knowledge Function: Attitudes help organize our understanding of the world, providing consistency and stability. For instance, our political attitudes can influence our perception of news.
Influence on Thoughts and Behavior:
- Cognitive Consistency: If inconsistency, or cognitive dissonance, arises, we’re motivated to reduce it. A person aware of the environmental harm caused by excessive car use might opt for public transport to reduce dissonance.
- Social Influence: Our attitudes are influenced by the groups we identify with, affecting our thoughts and actions. A teenager might develop a positive attitude towards a particular music genre due to peer influence.
- Attitude Accessibility: Attitudes that are easily recalled guide our behaviors more consistently. Strongly held attitudes, like religious beliefs, significantly impact our daily behaviors.
Social influence and persuasion are key determinants in shaping an individual's attitude." Discuss this statement with appropriate examples. (200 words)
Social influence and persuasion significantly shape an individual’s attitude, steering their beliefs, behaviors, and responses to different situations and social contexts.
Social Influence refers to the way individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are affected by others. It involves conformity, socialization, peer pressure, and obedience. Egs. Teenagers succumbing to peer pressure, adopting behaviors or attitudes popular within their social circle, such as fashion choices, language use, or even risk-taking behaviors like substance abuse.
Persuasion involves changing an individual’s attitudes or behaviors based on communication and arguments. It plays a significant role in areas like marketing, politics, and social campaigns. Egs. Advertising heavily relies on persuasion. Consumers are persuaded to believe that they need a specific product, changing their attitudes and purchasing behaviors. Political campaigns use persuasive tactics to shape public opinion.
Media, especially social media, is a powerful tool of social influence and persuasion. It can shape public sentiment on various issues, from climate change to political perspectives.
Both these phenomena often work together. Social influence creates a foundation on which persuasion acts. For instance, social norms (social influence) create a fertile ground for persuasive communication (advertisements) to change attitudes towards certain products or services.
However, there can be some negative impact too. While social influence and persuasion can promote positive change, they can also lead to negative outcomes like groupthink, where individuals conform to group decisions without critical evaluation, or propaganda, where persuasion is used to spread harmful ideologies.
- Public Finance and Fiscal Policy, Tax and Economic Reforms, One District One Product Policy of UPGovernment.
- Planning and management of renewable and non-renewable energy resources of UP.
What are the potential benefits and challenges associated with implementing the "One District One Product" policy?( 125 words)
“One District One Product” Policy in Uttar Pradesh was launched in 2018 under MSME Department of the state to promote specialized local products. Its benefits are:-
- It promotes economic growth and development by leveraging the unique resources and capabilities of each district, leading to creation of employment opportunities.
- The policy empowers rural communities by promoting local entrepreneurship, traditional crafts and sustainable economic activities.
- The policy encourages diversification of the state’s economy and reduces dependence on large industrial clusters.
- It helps preserve and promote the rich cultural heritage of Uttar Pradesh.
Challenges of implementing this policy:
- Lack of Infrastructure to support product development, marketing, and distribution.
- The availability of skilled artisans and craftsmen.
- Developing market linkages for the products with domestic and international markets.
- The implementation of the policy may require substantial financial support in terms of infrastructure development, training programs, and marketing initiatives.
In context of UP, which renewable energy resources are most important? Also state the places where non-renewable energy resources are found in Uttar Pradesh?(200 words)
Renewable energy resources, also mentioned in the SDG7 of UNDP, are important for sustainable development. In Uttar Pradesh, government created Non- Conventional Energy Development Agency(NEDA) under the department of additional energy sources as an autonomous institution, is nodal agency for renewable energy. The most important renewable energy resources are:
- Uttar Pradesh has abundant solar energy potential due to its geographical location and ample sunlight. Solar power projects, such as solar parks and rooftop solar installations, are being implemented across the state. However, potential for large projects is limited in most of the areas due to almost all land being very fertile and used in agriculture.
- In rural areas, biomass, including agricultural waste and organic materials, can be used for energy production through processes like anaerobic digestion and biomass combustion.
- Certain regions like the hilly terrains, terai area of Khiri, Pilibhit and Rohelkhand area have moderate wind energy potential.
Policies for solar and biomass energy have been released in 2022.
Non-Renewable Energy Resources in Uttar Pradesh:
- Uttar Pradesh has significant reserves of coal, primarily located in the Sonbhadra district.
- Oil and Gas have not been found in UP as of now, although explorations in Rampur, Shahjahanpur, Lakhimpur Kheri and other places have suggested presence of petroleum.
Thus, lacking substantial non-renewable resources, UP must focus on developing more renewable sources, or sources like nuclear energy for own needs.
Schedule of the program:
UPPCS Daily Answer Writing Program
Exam Date: 23rd– Sep 2023 Schedule for Daily Answer Writing
Start Date: 3rd– July 2023
Date Day Subject 1 Subject 2 Subject 3 3-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 4-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 5-Jul Wednesday Off 6-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 7-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 8-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi 9-Jul Sunday Off 10-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 11-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 12-Jul Wednesday Off 13-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 14-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 15-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi 16-Jul Sunday Off 17-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 18-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 19-Jul Wednesday Off 20-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 21-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 22-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi 23-Jul Sunday Off 24-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 25-Jul Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 26-Jul Wednesday Off 27-Jul Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 28-Jul Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 29-Jul Saturday Essay/Hindi 30-Jul Sunday Off 31-Jul Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 1-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 2-Aug Wednesday Off 3-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 4-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 5-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi 6-Aug Sunday Off 7-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 8-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 9-Aug Wednesday Off 10-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 11-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 12-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi 13-Aug Sunday Off 14-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 15-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 16-Aug Wednesday Off 17-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 18-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 19-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi 20-Aug Sunday Off 21-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 22-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 23-Aug Wednesday Off 24-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 25-Aug Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 26-Aug Saturday Essay/Hindi 27-Aug Sunday Off 28-Aug Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 29-Aug Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 30-Aug Wednesday Off 31-Aug Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 1-Sep Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 2-Sep Saturday Essay/Hindi 3-Sep Sunday Off 4-Sep Monday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 5-Sep Tuesday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 6-Sep Wednesday Off 7-Sep Thursday GS-1 GS 2 UP 1 8-Sep Friday GS-3 GS-4 UP 2 9-Sep Saturday Essay/Hindi
Mode of delivery: Online on Oracle IAS’s LMS
- User id and password will be provided to each candidate.
- Repository of all the questions and answers will be available from Day 1.
How the Daily UPPCS Answer Writing Program will be conducted?
- Topics from different subject for revision will be posted on the our Whatsapp/Telegram group.
- Next Day 2 questions per subject will be uploaded. (Total 6 Questions per day)
- Model Answer will be uploaded thereafter.
- Candidates have to self-evaluate their answers.
In total you will have 65+ days of answer writing practice with specific types of questions and answers.
Fees/Cost of the program:
Program Includes: 65+ days Daily Answer Writing + UPPCS Mains Solved Paper Book (Click Here for Sample)
Total Cost of the program: 1500 (answer writing)+ 450 (PYQ book) =
Rs. 1950 /-–> Rs. 1499/-
WhatsApp 999 7453844 for enrollment in the UPPCS Mains Daily Answer Writing Program.
Sample of the Book