Day 7: GS 3, GS 4, UP 2

GS 3


  1. Critically analyze the impact of direct and indirect farm subsidies on the agricultural sector in India. (200 words)

Farm Subsidies are Government incentives paid to farmers & agri-businesses to supplement their income to influence the cost and supply of such commodities. Farm subsidies constitute about 2% of India’s GDP.

Direct Subsidies

Indirect Subsidies

The Government should take steps to rationalize farm subsidies and invest more on capital formation, R&D in agriculture. This will improve agriculture productivity and make agriculture more remunerative.


  1. Discuss the role of the Minimum Support Price (MSP) in ensuring farmer welfare. What are some challenges in its implementation and what reforms can be undertaken to enhance its effectiveness? (200 words)

MSP is a government policy aimed at ensuring fair prices to farmers, thereby safeguarding them against any sharp fall in farm prices. The CACP announces MSP for 22 crops. It ensures farmer welfare in following ways:

Challenges in Implementation of MSP:

The procurement policy of the government needs reforms that are easier to implement. Efforts must be made to balance market price and farmers’ support. Cash transfer gives better choices to farmers than imposing subsidies.

GS 4


  1. Critically evaluate the structure and function of attitude. How does it influence thought and behavior? Give suitable examples to justify your answer. (200 words)

Attitude structure comprises three key components:

Function of Attitude:

Influence on Thoughts and Behavior:


  1. Social influence and persuasion are key determinants in shaping an individual's attitude." Discuss this statement with appropriate examples. (200 words)

Social influence and persuasion significantly shape an individual’s attitude, steering their beliefs, behaviors, and responses to different situations and social contexts.

Social Influence refers to the way individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are affected by others. It involves conformity, socialization, peer pressure, and obedience. Egs. Teenagers succumbing to peer pressure, adopting behaviors or attitudes popular within their social circle, such as fashion choices, language use, or even risk-taking behaviors like substance abuse.

Persuasion involves changing an individual’s attitudes or behaviors based on communication and arguments. It plays a significant role in areas like marketing, politics, and social campaigns. Egs. Advertising heavily relies on persuasion. Consumers are persuaded to believe that they need a specific product, changing their attitudes and purchasing behaviors. Political campaigns use persuasive tactics to shape public opinion.

Media, especially social media, is a powerful tool of social influence and persuasion. It can shape public sentiment on various issues, from climate change to political perspectives.

Both these phenomena often work together. Social influence creates a foundation on which persuasion acts. For instance, social norms (social influence) create a fertile ground for persuasive communication (advertisements) to change attitudes towards certain products or services.

However, there can be some negative impact too. While social influence and persuasion can promote positive change, they can also lead to negative outcomes like groupthink, where individuals conform to group decisions without critical evaluation, or propaganda, where persuasion is used to spread harmful ideologies.

UP 2


  1. What are the potential benefits and challenges associated with implementing the "One District One Product" policy?( 125 words)

“One District One Product” Policy in Uttar Pradesh was launched in 2018 under MSME Department of the state to promote specialized local products. Its benefits are:-

Challenges of implementing this policy:


  1. In context of UP, which renewable energy resources are most important? Also state the places where non-renewable energy resources are found in Uttar Pradesh?(200 words)

Renewable energy resources, also mentioned in the SDG7 of UNDP, are important for sustainable development. In Uttar Pradesh, government created Non- Conventional Energy Development Agency(NEDA) under the department of additional energy sources as an autonomous institution, is nodal agency for renewable energy. The most important renewable energy resources are:

Policies for solar and biomass energy have been released in 2022.

Non-Renewable Energy Resources in Uttar Pradesh:

Thus, lacking substantial non-renewable resources, UP must focus on developing more renewable sources, or sources like nuclear energy for own needs.

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